Developing high-quality assessments that measure intended learning outcomes is an important but challenging part of the learning process. Educators may utilize formative and summative assessments throughout the learning process to help gauge what students know and can do. For educators, it is important to balance assessment types and continually use assessments for learning to determine the next steps to take with a class or individual student.
One shift that is happening in education today is a move towards outcomes-based education and assessment. This is a type of learning designed towards meeting standards or objectives to develop and build real-world skills rather than simply trying to get a “good grade” on a test or quiz. Often outcome-based assessment results are measured over time rather than in a single event or test, giving a more accurate measure of student ability. In this article, we will dive into outcomes-based assessments and how they can be implemented in the classroom.
What are Outcomes-based Assessments?
Outcomes-based assessments are a type of evaluation or measurement approach used in various educational and professional settings to assess a person’s knowledge, skills, or competencies based on specific predefined outcomes or objectives. The emphasis is placed on what learners or individuals can do or demonstrate, rather than simply measuring their performance in isolated tasks or activities.
In outcome-based assessments, the assessment criteria are aligned with clear and measurable learning outcomes or competencies, which are usually defined beforehand. These outcomes can be related to specific knowledge, skills, attitudes, or behaviors that a person is expected to possess or exhibit as a result of their learning or training experience.
Key characteristics of outcome-based assessments include:
Clear and measurable outcomes: The learning objectives or competencies are well-defined and quantifiable, making it easier to evaluate the extent to which the learners have achieved them.
Authentic assessment tasks: Assessment tasks are designed to reflect real-world situations or scenarios where the learners are required to apply their knowledge and skills in context.
Direct observation: Often, outcome-based assessments involve direct observation of the learners’ performance, providing a more accurate representation of their abilities.
Formative and summative assessments: Outcome-based assessments can be used for both formative purposes (providing feedback to learners to improve their skills during the learning process) and summative purposes (determining the learners’ overall achievement or competence).
Emphasis on application and transfer of learning: The focus is not only on acquiring knowledge but also on applying that knowledge effectively in various contexts.
Learning-centered: Outcome-based assessments are learner-centered, as they concentrate on what the learners can do rather than just what is taught to them.
Example of an outcome-based assessment in education:
In a public speaking class, the instructor might define the following learning outcomes:
- Students will deliver a persuasive speech with a clear thesis statement, supporting evidence, and effective organization.
- Students will demonstrate effective verbal and nonverbal communication skills during their speech presentations.
- Students will respond to impromptu questions from the audience, displaying critical thinking and adaptability.
Throughout the course, the students will be evaluated based on their ability to meet these specific outcomes, and their final grade will be determined by how well they demonstrate these skills in their speeches. With this assessment type, only the outcomes or skills are measured, this is different from traditional assessment and grading where scores throughout are averaged. This gives students room to grow without being penalized in the grade book for moving at a slower pace.
Why are Outcomes-based Assessments Important?
Outcomes-based assessments are important for student learning because they allow students to learn at their own pace and focus on skills rather than earning a grade. This can increase motivation and engagement, and allow students of different abilities to enter where they are able.
These assessments are also important for teachers because they help to give a clear picture of where students need to go next in their learning. It also gives teachers an indicator that students have met learning objectives and are meeting the standards.
What are the Benefits for Student Learning?
There are many benefits to student learning with outcome-based assessment. The top 5 benefits included:
- Personalized learning – Outcomes-based assessments facilitate personalized learning experiences. Since learners’ progress is measured against specific outcomes, educators can identify individual strengths and areas that need improvement, tailoring instruction and support accordingly to meet each learner’s unique needs.
- Clear steps for improvement – With outcome-based assessments, learners receive timely and constructive feedback on their performance. This feedback helps them understand their strengths and areas for improvement, promoting a growth mindset and encouraging continuous learning and development.
- Grading based on standards – outcomes-based assessment ensures that students are assessed on standards and that their grade reflects their endpoint, not their starting point. This is different from traditional assessments where grades are cumulative and reflect an average.
- Improved student growth – When students know the exact step that they need to take to reach a standard and they understand the outcomes that need to happen to reach the standard they stay engaged and grow more.
- Student ownership of learning – Students have a road map of what success looks like in the end. Regardless of where they start, all students can make progress on that road map and they can do it without a teacher having to guide through step-by-step.
Examples of Outcomes-Based Assessment
Outcomes-based assessments can be used in all classes including, for example, science, culinary arts, and English classes. In science, an outcomes-based assessment may have a teacher write an objective such as, “ Students will understand the scientific method and its application.” To assess this, the teacher may have students design and conduct their own experiments following the scientific method, including formulating hypotheses, collecting data, analyzing results, and making conclusions.
In a catering or culinary program a teacher may have the objective to have students prepare dishes according to industry standards. As an assessment, students could be required to prepare different dishes within a set time frame. The quality, presentation, and adherence to industry standards are evaluated
In an English class, the teacher may be teaching the ins and outs of developing a sound argument. The assessment task may include having students write essays arguing a certain point with counterpoints. The teacher may evaluate grammar, organization, strength of argument, and logic.
With each of these examples, the key is that the assessment is not a closed-off single look at student ability. The instructor will likely have students repeat these processes and continue to improve throughout the school year. The key component is that rather than being assessed on each try, students are assessed on their most recent works to get an idea of where students are at at the moment, rather than 3 months before when they just started learning the concept.
Implementing Outcomes-based Assessment with EdTech
Implementing outcomes-based assessment using technology can significantly enhance the efficiency, scalability, and effectiveness of the assessment process. Technology-enabled learning management systems (LMS) or digital testing platforms, like TAO testing, can be utilized to define and track learning outcomes, making it easy for educators to align assessments with specific objectives. Through the online platform, instructors can create online quizzes, assignments, and interactive activities tailored to measure learners’ attainment of desired outcomes. These platforms provide instant feedback, allowing learners to identify areas for improvement and enabling instructors to monitor progress in real-time.
Additionally, data analytics can be employed to analyze learners’ performance trends, helping teachers and schools to refine their teaching methods and optimize the learning experience. Mapping student outcomes allows educators to get both holistic and individualized student data to inform decisions going forward.
As schools continue to embrace the flexibility and efficiency of online learning and testing platforms, new ways of assessing and learning are becoming readily available. Through outcomes-based assessment, educators can focus on what is truly important in learning which is student growth. Outcomes-based assessments reduce bias based on prior knowledge, increases student growth, and improves overall engagement.
To learn more about how an online testing platform like TAO can help improve student growth and make outcomes-based assessment a reality for you, click here.